DUAL-PAM-100 Chlorophyll Fluorescence & P700 Measuring System from WALZ




Chl Fluorescence & P700 Absorbance
WALZ P700 Tutorial - Basic Concepts:

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Type of Instrument Chlorophyll Fluorometers
The instrument measures: Chlorophyll Fluorescence

The DUAL-PAM-100 measuring system lifts the parallel recording of photosystem II and photosystem I activities on a new level. The outstanding opto-electronical properties of the DUAL-PAM-100 result from more than 25 years of experience with the PAM-101/102/103 chlorophyll fluorometer combined with exceptional modern engineering and craftsmanship.


Essentially, the DUAL-PAM-100 possesses both the properties of a high performance PAM chlorophyll fluorometer and that of a dual wavelength absorbance spectrometer.

The DUAL-PAM-100 measuring system is available in two different versions: the MODULAR version has its light sources and signal detection located in separate measuring heads which are controlled by a central unit.


In comparison, light sources and signal detection are located in the central unit in the FIBER version, in which sample and instrument are connected by special fiberoptics.

The MODULAR version permits the easy exchange of measuring heads thus allowing a wide range of different applications like determinations of NADPH or pH gradients.

The FIBER version lacks this flexibility but may be advantageous when only photosystem II and photosystem I activities are of interest. Both, the MODULAR and the FIBER version, can be used to measure leaves, macroalgae, microalgae and cyanobacteria.

Power-and-Control-Unit DUAL-C

General design: Microcontroller: 2 x AVR-RISC (8 MHz) + 4 MB SRAM; 256 000 data points with 12 bit resolution can be stored

Communication: PC interface: USB 1.1 and USB 2.0 compatible

User interface: Windows computer with DualPAM software

Power supply: Rechargeable sealed lead-acid battery 12 V/2 Ah; Battery Charger MINI-PAM/L (100 to 240 V AC)

Power consumption: During basic operation 160 mA

Measuring Head with P700 NIR Emitter DUAL-E

Measuring light: P700 dual-wavelength emitter. Sample wavelength 830 nm, reference wavelength, 870 nm 

Actinic light: Far-red LED lamp: 720 nm. Chip-on-board (COB) LED array: 635 nm for continuous actinic illumination, maximum 2000 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR. Saturating single turnover flashes, maximal 200 000 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR, adjustable between 5 and 50 μs. Multiple turnover flashes, maximal 20 000 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR, adjustable between 1 and 1000 ms

Dimensions: 10.5 cm x 5.5 cm x 7 cm (L x W x H)

DUAL-PAM-100: Modular Version
DUAL-PAM/F: Fiber Version

During the past years, the DualPAM software has been considerably expanded.
The latest version of this powerful software is available for download in the "DOWNLOAD" tab.
Walz provides for the current DualPAM software a completely new manual which thoroughly  reviews the whole range of the software’s measuring and analytical abilities.
Among many other features, the manual highlights:
- How the P700 flux method determines the number of electrons per second flowing through PS I.
- How automatic analysis assesses the pool size of photosynthetic electrons.
- How triggered runs or script files automate your measurements.

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