Chlorophyll Fluorometer for Phytoplankton WATER-PAM-II




The WATER-PAM-II is next to PHYTO-PAM-II, the instrument of choice for phytoplankton analysis.
It may be used for laboratory cultures as well as natural water samples when very low chlorophyll contents of samples require ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection.

WATER-PAM-II is a portable cuvette system for analysing the photosynthetic activity of a wide variety of phytoplankton samples. The light weight instrument offers a wide range of applications thanks to its large sensitivity spectrum and its ability to easily switch between red or blue light modes (measuring light and actinic light) and a variety of accessories such as a flow-through cuvette.

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Type of Instrument Fluorescence Meter
The instrument measures: Chlorophyll Fluorescence

The WATER-PAM-II unit provides detailed analysis of the photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton samples including quenching parameters like a stand-alone instrument or using WinControl-3 software via an external computer.
In addition to making simple single measurements, analysis protocols such as induction curves and light curves can be performed with easy to use program routines.

A new feature for WATER-PAM-II instruments is the differential analysis of algal content. This provides a tool to determine the composition of algae populations with respect to three algae groups (green algae, cyanobacteria and brown algae), based on differences in the F-spectrum of these algal groups.
A deconvoluted/differential analysis of photosynthetic activity of mixed algal samples is provided by PHYTO-PAM-II instruments.

Very compact design features:
•  Integrated sunlight readable touchscreen enabling easy operation and providing numerical and graphical display of the measurements
•  Pleasant power option by common, easily replaceable, off-the-shelf batteries (type AA)
•  Energy-efficient LED light sources and storage capacity of 27 000 data sets permit long-term experiments in the field
•  Highly sensitive photomultiplier detector with automatic overexposure protection for safe use even in sunny environments

Extensive scope of delivery includes several cuvettes, a cuvette stand and the US-SQS/L Light Sensor for precise light calibration.

Accessories available for WATER-PAM-II:
•  WATER-II/S Stirrer (device controlled) to prevent settling of sample
•  PHYTO-II/FT Flow-Through Cuvette with WATER-II/FT/I Pump Control 0-10 V for automated sampling
•  BCS-9590 Barcode Scanner for comfortable labelling of samples


The WATER-PAM FIBER version belongs to the well-established first generation WATER-PAM family, which is controlled by the central unit PAM-CONTROL. It can be operated as stand-alone instrument in the field or controlled by an external computer using WinControl-3 software.

The FIBER version probes surfaces of solid objects by using an optical fiber. Typically the FIBER version is employed to examine photosynthetic layers on various submerged surfaces (periphyton, microphytobenthos) and soil crusts but also to screen samples on microwell plates.
The FIBER version is less sensitive than WATER-PAM-II so that chlorophyll concentrations around 100 - 500 µg chla/l are recommended.

The FIBER version can be equipped with different-colored LEDs: the WATER-EDF1.5R uses red measuring and actinic light, these light sources are replaced by blue LEDs in the WATER-EDF1.5B.

The WATER-EDF1.5R is configured with an additional blue light source to selectively excite the photosystem I in cyanobacteria or, alternatively, with a far-red light source for photosystem I excitation in many other photosynthetic organisms.

Specifications WATER-PAM-II:

Specifications FIBER Version:

Prof. Maoz Fine and his team are employing an AQUATIC VERSION of the MONITORING-PAM to investigate how the rapid climate change affects photosynthesis of coral endosymbionts.
Live data from his underwater monitoring station in the Red Sea are available ON-LINE.

General Features and Graphical User Interface

WATER-PAM-II instruments can be operated in standalone or externally controlled by WinControl-3 software. Saturation pulse analysis, automated experimental protocols and analysis of algae composition can be performed. In the field the sun readable touchscreen provides experimental control as well as graphical and numerical data display. Continuous recording of fluorescence, modelling of light curves and recalculation of algae composition with new references requires WinControl-3 software.

The WinControl-3 software represents the latest version of the WinControl software family. Presently, WinControl-3 operates the MONITORING-PAM, MINI-PAM-II, DIVING-PAM-II, WATER-PAM-II, JUNIOR-PAM fluorometers, PAM-CONTROL operated instruments (WATER-PAM FIBER Version, MICROSCOPY-PAM and MICROFIBER-PAM) as well as the Universal Light Meter ULM-500.

WATER-PAM-II Accessories:

Fiber Version Accessories:

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