A MICRO-PAM system involves several light-weight chlorophyll fluorometers for field use. Being capable of multi-site monitoring of photosynthesis over weeks and months, the MICRO-PAM is tailored to study plant responses to environmental changes in nature and under controlled conditions. Due to its compact measuring heads, the MICRO-PAM is suited for smaller samples than those typically probed by the established MONITORING-PAM.
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|Type of Instrument||Chlorophyll Fluorometers|
|The instrument measures:||Photosynthesis|
Originally, the MICRO-PAM has been developed to measure photosynthesis of lichens growing on rocks or in biological soil crusts. The actual field of application includes herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees. In addition to determining photosynthesis yield by the saturation pulse technique, the measuring heads record light intensity and temperature by external sensors, and humidity by an internal sensor.
The measuring heads of a MICRO-PAM system are denoted as MICRO-HEAD/3B where the “3” specifies the diameter in mm of the light guide and the "B" stands for the blue color of measuring and actinic light.
The MICRO-HEAD/3B possesses a blue power LED with maximum emission at 465 nm and a full width at half maximum of 22 nm. The maximum actinic light intensity at sample level is 3000 μmol m-2 s-1, the maximum saturation pulse intensity is 6000 μmol m-2 s-1.
Housing: Polymer housing with optical block and fiber connector on one side, and a combined power line/RS485 socket on the opposite side
MICRO HEAD/BK Leaf Clip: Consisting of 2 aluminum frames (3.5 x 2.5 cm), held together by magnet, 0.4 cm distance between sample plane of leaf clip and lightguide, angle between sample plane and optical light guide: 60°
Cables: RS 485 data/power cable, 10 m standard length, connecting MICRO-HEAD/3B and MICRO IB4 PC Interface Box. RS 485 adapter cable, 0.6 m long, to connect MICRO-HEAD/3B to optional PC Interface Box MONI IB4/LAN or to optional MONI DA system for data acquisition
Flexible stand: Baseplate of acrylic glass 10 x 10 x 0.5 cm (L x W x H); flexible goose neck consisting of 20 links, 1.7 cm maximum diameter, 30 cm length, one end with metal thread equipped with 1 butterfly nut, 1 nut and 2 washers. Weight 114 g
Dimensions: Complete head with leaf clip, 13.5 x 3.5 x 4 cm (L x W x H)
Power consumption: Peak loads during saturating pulses 3 W. During measuring mode 0.15 W
Operating temperature: -15 to +40 °C
Weight: 96 g
Modulated fluorescence excitation: Blue power LED (typical peak wavelength 470 nm, full width at half maximum 22 nm). Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of measuring light at level of the sample clip range from 0.15 to 1.5 μmol m-2 s-1 at low modulation frequencies (5 to 25 Hz), and from 1.5 to 22.5 μmol m-2 s-1 at high modulation frequencies (100 Hz)
Actinic light: Same power LED as for modulated light. At sample level of leaf clip, 3000 μmol m-2 s -1span> maximum PAR of actinic light, 8000 μmol m-2 s-1 maximum PAR of saturating flashes
Fluorescence: PIN-photodiode protected by longpass filter (50% transmittance at 645 nm). Selective window amplifier to measure pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorescence.
Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR): External LS-C sensor for selective PAR measurement, range 0 to 7000 μmol m-2 s-1, cosine-corrected for light incident at angles between -30° to +30° from the surface normal
Temperature: Thermocouple: Ni-CrNi, wire diameter 0.1 mm, -20 to +60 °C
Humidity: Capacitive-type humidity sensor on a specialized analog and digital integrated circuit, 0 - 100% relative humidity
Housing: Robust water-proof cylinder consisting of a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube and poly-oxymethylene (POM) endplates. One endplate with 2 male M12 5-pole sockets connected in parallel (MONI-IB4/LAN communication, charging voltage), one male M12 5-pole socket for auxiliaries, and 7 female M12 5-pole sockets (MONI-HEAD/485 communication)
Dimensions: Cylinder with diameter of 16 cm and length of 24 cm
Data management: Dual data storage on internal 8 MByte circular flash buffer and an industrial grade 512 MByte removable microSD flash card. Wireless data transfer via cellular phone or satellite modem. Online data transfer using RS-485 serial data communication.
Power consumption: 5 mW in standby mode. Operating mode, depends on the number of MONIHEAD/485 connected (see MONI-HEAD/485 power consumption)
Battery: 12 V / 7.5 Ah (96 Wh) LiFePO4 battery.
Operating temperature: -30 to +60 °C
Weight: 5.4 kg
Housing: Aluminum case with USB-B socket, power supply socket, and four M12 5-pole sockets for RS-485 communication
Links: The interface box connects up to four MICRO-HEAD/3B Measuring Heads with a computer. These connection cables also power the measuring heads. USB communication is used between interface box and computer
Cables: Recommended maximum lengths, 10 m RS-485 cable between measuring head and interface, 1.8 m USB cable between interface and computer
Dimensions: : 9.7 x 6.3 x 3.5 cm (L x W x H)
Operating temperature: 0 to +40 °C
Weight: 270 g
Program: WinControl-3 System Control and Data Acquisition Program (Windows 7, 8, 10) for operation of the MICRO-PAM system, data acquisition and data analysis
Saturation Pulse Analysis: WinControl-3 System Control and Data Acquisition Program (Windows 7, 8, 10) for operation of the MICRO-PAM system, data acquisition and data analysis
Program: Measured: Ft, F0, FM, F, F0' (also calculated), FM'. Calculated: F0' (also measured), FV/FM and Y(II) (maximum and effective photochemical yield of PS II, respectively), qL, qP, qN, NPQ, Y(NPQ), Y(NO) and ETR (electron transport rate). Fitting Routines: Two routines for determination of the cardinal points α, Ik and ETRmax of light curves
Further date acquired: PAR, leaf temperature, humidity
Additional feature: Automatic determination of signal offset for all light intensities and all gain levels
Communication Protocol: USB
Computer Requirements: Processor, 1 GHz. RAM, 512 MB. Screen resolution, 1024 x 600 pixels. Interface, USB 2.0/3.0
Design: Polycrystalline silicon panel. Highly resistant to water, abrasion, hail impact and other severe weather conditions. Equipped with a 4 m cable and plug for the AUX or INPUT socket of the Data Acquisition System MONI-DA. Several panels can be connected in parallel to provide sufficient power under conditions of low insolation
Electrical characteristics: Vmax, 15.0 V, Imax, 0.63 A (at 1000 W/m2 sunlight). VOC, 19.6 V. ISC, 0.80 A
Dimensions: 50 x 35 cm (L x W)
Weight: 1.2 kg (incl. cable and plug)
Design: Aluminum box with custom foam packing for MONITORING-PAM including MONI-DA
Dimensions: 80 cm x 40 cm x 34 cm (L x W x H); 60 liter
Weight: 4.9 kg
Housing: Aluminum case with one M12 5-pole connector and four M8 5-pole connectors
Links: The interface box connects up to four MICRO-HEAD/3B Measuring Heads to one single MONI-BUS port of a MONI-DA data acquisition system
Recommended maximum cable lengths: 10 m between MICRO-HEAD/3B and MICRO-HUB, and between MICRO-HUB and MONI-DA
Dimensions: 10 x 6 x 3.5 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 228 g
Operating temperature: -30 to +40 °C
Housing: Plastic block with one USB-B line and one line for RS-485 communication firmly attached
Interfacing: The interface cable connects a USB port of a computer with the input socket of the MONI-DA.
Cable lengths: USB: 0.9 m. RS-485, 2 m
Dimensions of block: 4.5 x 3.0 x 1.5 cm (L x W x H)
Weight including cables: 145 g
Operating temperature: 0 to +40 °C
Specification depend on available devices at the time of order
The MICRO-HEAD / 3B is equipped with a sample clip. The cosine-response PAR sensor is positioned parallel to the sample plane. A thermocouple touching the lower sample side measures temperature. Humidity is measured by a capacitive-type sensor located inside the fluorometer housing. On request, a special stand will be provided to mount the MICRO-HEAD / 3B on solid surfaces.
MICRO-PAM systems can be operated in the ONLINE configuration in which up to four measuring heads can be connected via the MICRO-IB4 PC Interface Box to an USB port of a Windows computer running WinControl-3. In the OFFLINE configuration, measuring heads are connected directly or via the so-called MINI-HUB to a MONI-DA data acquisition system.
The WinControl-3 is a very versatile software dedicated to operate a certain class of Walz PAM fluorometers. The software executes classical experimental routines like fluorescence induction and light response curves, but also acquires and graphically display data.
WinControl-3 not only operates the MICRO PAM but also the DIVING-PAM-II, JUNIOR-PAM, MINI-PAM-II, and MONITORING-PAM fluorometers, as well as PAM-CONTROL operated instruments (MICROSCOPY-PAM, MICROFIBER-PAM and WATER-PAM) and the Universal Light Meter ULM-500.
Saturating pulse analysis with automatic detection of fluorescence levels F0, FM, F, and FM’. Calculation of F0’ level fluorescence and of standard fluorescence parameters. Specifically, photochemical yield of photosystem II, FV/FM and Y(II), photochemical quenching, qP and qL, non-photochemical quenching, qN, NPQ, Y(NPQ), and Y(NO), and electron transport rate, ETR.
All experimental protocols can be performed automatically using the batch file feature of WinControl-3. Convenient programming of experiments using the built-in macro recorder. The software is capable of DDE communication with peripheral machines.
Repetitive triggering of fluorometer functions (e. g., dark-light induction and dark recovery curves) by adjustable clock. Automatic execution of light exposure protocols and fitting of two different model functions to data of light response experiments.
Export in CSV (comma-separated values) format of original fluorescence traces, saturating pulse analysis data and parameter estimates of light response curves.